The immune system is a remarkable biological defense mechanism. In this
article we would like to introduce you to the basic components of your companion’s
immune system so you can begin to understand how your friend stays healthy and what
may be happening within when he or she becomes ill in some way. In subsequent
articles we discuss how and why the immune system can fail, as occurs with autoimmune
disease, allergies and cancer, and we offer various ways to assist or boost the immune system.
The first line of defense for any mammal is the skin, which acts not only as
a barrier to keep out invaders, but also secretes antimicrobial substances to help
deter or eradicate germs. The lining of the gastrointestinal system is essentially
an internal extension of the skin, which creates a barrier to disease-causing organisms
that enter through the mouth in food, liquid or other ingested substances.
and gut are populated with what are known as “healthy” bacteria that help prevent
other possibly damaging organisms from taking up residence. Tears, mucus
and saliva contain antibacterial enzymes, and microbes that are not immediately eliminated
may be caught up in mucus and swallowed, where they will be eliminated in a healthy
gut. Germs or invaders that make it past these defense systems consequently deal with the
immune system at a different level.
The major components of the “internal” immune system are:
• Lymph system
• Bone marrow
• White blood cells
• Complement system
The Lymph System
The lymph system extends throughout the body in much the same way as blood vessels,
but the lymph system is not pressurized and “pumped” like the circulatory system. Lymph fluid is a clear liquid that bathes the cells with water and nutrients
and carries away waste products. It flows passively and gets pushed along
to the lymph nodes by normal body and muscle movement.
Lymph nodes filter waste and contain large numbers of lymphocytes (see white
blood cells below). When fighting infection, lymph nodes swell and can be felt if
they are located near the surface of the body such as in the throat area and behind
Lymphoma is a type of cancer in which some of the cells in the lymph system multiply
uncontrollably. We discuss this and other cancers in other articles in our
Holistic Healthcare Library.
Thymus gland, Spleen and Bone Marrow
The thymus gland is a small gland in the chest area and it is responsible for producing
T-lymphocytes or T-cells (see next section).
The spleen is the largest organ of the lymph system. It filters blood and
eliminates bacteria and other foreign cells along with worn out red blood cells.
Bone marrow is the birthplace of new blood cells, both red and white. Red blood
cells mature fully in the marrow and then enter the bloodstream. White blood
cells may mature elsewhere in the lymph system. All blood cells are produced
from stem cells, which are the precursors to many different types of cells. Stem cells are what mature into the specific types of white blood cells.
White Blood Cells
There are 16 or more types of white blood cells. All white blood cells
are involved in the immune system in some way. White blood cell levels increase
when fighting disease in the body, which can be one way we use to determine the
presence of disease using a blood test.
The primary cells of the immune system are lymphocytes and phagocytes. Lymphocytes are the most numerous cells of the immune system and are ultimately
responsible for antibody production. Lymphocytes densely populate the body’s
lymph nodes, thymus gland and spleen. The digestive system has a large
amount of lymph tissue
containing lymphocytes. Lymphocytes continually circulate
throughout the body patrolling for invaders. There are two major types of
lymphocytes, B- and T-lymphocytes, more commonly known as B-cells and T-cells. B-cells can divide rapidly and produce antibodies that fight specific
diseases. T-cells mature in the thymus, and they act more directly against
invading or diseased cells, bumping up against and killing them. Killer T-cells can detect cells harboring viruses and destroy them. Helper T-cells
“assist” killer T-cells by sensitizing them, and suppressor T-cells help control
the immune response.
Phagocytes engulf and digest foreign cells or particles. They are found
throughout the body in different forms. They migrate into tissues in response
to infection and help clean up waste, bacteria and foreign debris.
Antibodies and Complements
Antibodies (also referred to as immunoglobulins and gammaglobulins) are complex
protein molecules produced by B-cells. There are millions of different antibodies
in the bloodstream. The abbreviations such as IgE, IgA or IgG in a medical
document refer to specific types of antibodies. Blood tests for specific antibodies
can indicate what disease an animal’s system is fighting, or whether the immune system
is reacting inappropriately, as in the case of allergies or autoimmune disorders.
Antibodies combine with specific antigens – typically foreign proteins on the
surface of invading or diseased cells such as microorganisms or cancer cells. In the case of invading germs, the antibodies may cause the cells to clump together
so they can be destroyed by phagocytes. If the foreign substance is a toxin,
for instance, it is neutralized and carried along through the lymph system to be
filtered out and eliminated. Antibodies are also involved in the allergic
response, as described in other articles.
Complement proteins are a group of 14 proteins normally present in the blood. Complements are manufactured in the liver. The complement proteins are activated
by and work with (complement) the antibodies, hence the name. They cause diseased
cells to burst and signal to phagocytes that a destroyed cell needs to be removed.
This brief overview of the immune system can help you understand the complex
mechanisms at work when your companion is ill. It can also help you understand
the various ways in which the immune system can be enhanced or strengthened either
to prevent disease or fight an illness.
We offer a wide selection of
natural immune support products.
For more information on supporting your pet's immune system, check out these
Building a Healthy Immune System
Homeopathy for Pet Health
Using Herbs for Pet Health
Natural Immunity: Supporting Health from the Inside Out
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The articles and information in the Holistic Healthcare Library are presented for
informational purposes only and are not intended as an endorsement of any product.
The information is not intended to be a substitute for visits to your local veterinarian.
Instead, the content offers the reader information and opinions written by our staff,
guest authors, and/or veterinarians concerning animal health issues and animal care